Mike MacDonagh's Blog

Somewhere in the overlap between software development, process improvement and psychology

Tag Archives: measurement

A cross-project Release Burnup?

Huh?

Points are abstract and relative, comparing them across projects is like comparing apples and elephants.

Releases only make sense in themselves, let alone across project time lines so why would I want to look at a cross-project burnup? Such a thing is foolishness surely…

Well maybe not, it might be useful as an agile at scale measure, as a way of looking at the work churn in a department or other high level unit in an organisation. I’ve been pondering if there’s a way of aggregating burnup information and point burnage across teams (with distinct disjoint timelines) and thought that there might be a way.

Ideally I want to be able to show the amount of work planned within an organisational group and progress towards that scope, showing when scope goes up and down (does that ever happen?). Then I want to show progress towards that scope overall, the angle of the progress line could give me an organisational velocity – perhaps I could even add an ideal velocity that would indicate what perfect robots would to if real life never intervened (although that could be dangerous).

Aggregate burnup

First I need a way of normalising points and understanding what 100% of scope means when it can be incorporating many projects at different points in their lifecycles. Perhaps a way of doing it is considering everything in terms of percentage, after all that’s an easy thing for people to consume. To define 100% of a scope of various contributing projects is tricky since it’ll change and be dependant on their releases, continuous flows, changing scope.

A simplistic approach to this is to use a moving baseline, perhaps we can determine 100% of a projects scope as whatever it thinks it would deliver within the time area being considered (the scope of the x-axis) at 15% of it’s timeline (or whatever).

In the example above this tells me that work is consistently overplanned not just in terms of actual velocity, but in terms of idealised capacity aswell – the demand is higher than the supply. I think this could be useful for “agiley” portfolio management.

Perhaps I could start establishing a budget cycle velocity, and start limiting work planned based on empirical evidence. Ok, so no project is the same and points aren’t comparable but the Law of Large Numbers is on my side.

What do you think? Is this bonkers?

Scaled Agility: The Project Forum

Name: Project Forum (Middle-out management structure) – Agile at Scale practice

When it might be appropriate

  • In situations where multiple competing stakeholder groups with different agendas are required to work together
  • In situations where multiple product groups need to collaborate on a bigger outcome
  • Where there is a conflict in direction, resource management/ownership or scope between collaborating groups
  • System of systems development

What is it?

The Project Forum is an application of agile philosophy to large project structures. Rather than impose a hierarchy of decision making from the Project Manager downwards the Project Forum is a virtual team in the middle of all stakeholders.

The Project Forum is a self-organising democratic group that balances competing voices and concerns, owns high level scope and architecture, runs the high level release train and performs integration activities for the product.

Use of the Project Forum practice does not prevent any communication directly between contributing groups it only provides a vehicle for that conversation when it’s relevant for the wider project.

From Traditional to Agile at ScaleThe Project Forum practice is an example of Agile at Scale combining social business practices, technical software practices and ways of working to make a simple way of doing big complicated bits of work.

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Simple software project measures

I’m not a big fan of metrics, measures, charts, reporting and data collection. I’m not terribly impressed by dashboards with 20 little graphs on showing loads of detailed information. When I’m involved in projects I want to know 3 simple things:

  • How quick are we doing stuff?
  • Are we on track or not?
  • Is the stuff good enough quality?

There can be some deep science behind the answers to those questions but at the surface that’s all I want to see.

Organisations need to know that teams are delivering quality products at the right pace to fit the business need. To achieve this goal teams need to be able to demonstrate that their product is of sufficient quality and that they can commit to delivering the required scope within the business time scales. If the project goal may not be achieved then the business or the team need to change something (such as scope, resources or time scales). This feedback mechanism and the open transparent communication of this knowledge is key to the success of agile delivery.

The goal of delivering quality products at the right pace can be measured in many complex ways however, when designing the Project Forum agile at scale practice we looked at just 3 measures. In fact I should probably call them 2.5 measures as the throughput/release burnup can be considered mutually exclusive (if you’re continuous flow or iterative). The most important measure is people’s opinions when you go and talk to your team.

Simple Measures Dashboard

Note: in the measures section I often refer to “requirements” as a simple number, this could be a count, a normalised count, magnitude, points, etc. it doesn’t matter what’s used so long as it’s consistent.

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What does “Agile at Scale” mean?

There’s a lot of talk in the process improvement industry about the meaning of “agile at scale”, devops, lean and agile for a number of reasons. One reason that I’ve seen in successful agile organisations is that as development maturity increases with true agile adoption bigger problems present themselves. This is the natural progression of the science of development, what used to be considered complex (like Object Orientation) is now normal, a commodity. Innovation in ways of working is happening at the organisational, cross-team, cross-product level.

For me agile at scale (I’ve got fed up of the quotes already) means a couple of different things:

  • Repeating agile successes embodied in a team across an organisation (scaling out?)
  • Applying agile thinking to cross-product projects
  • Applying agile and lean thinking to development organisations
  • Applying agile and lean thinking to high assurance environments like medical, security, financial, safety critical, audited, regulated businesses.

Agile and lean? Yep, both with lower case letters. I’m not particularly interested in ideological approaches to software development, I believe strongly in taking the best bits of whatever processes, techniques, practices etc. you find externally, mixing them up with internal practices and ways of doing things to develop simple, pragmatic approaches to ways of working. Both agile and lean schools of thought promote minimising unnecessary work, shorter delivery cycles and higher quality, continuously learning lessons and empirical decision making.

The agile manifesto gave us:

Individuals and interactions over processes and tools
Working software over comprehensive documentation
Customer collaboration over contract negotiation
Responding to change over following a plan

That is, while there is value in the items on
the right, we value the items on the left more.

Some great practices have evolved for applying agile and lean thinking like scrum, kanban etc. However all of the complex organisations I’ve worked with have found that there’s still space for more thinking in terms of how to run a software business, how to deal with big complex system-of-system problems, multiple competing stakeholder sets, programme and portfolio management etc. Not surprising really because the agile movement wasn’t about trying to do any of that stuff.

However organisations who are successful with agile transformations want to apply the successful open and honest philosophy behind the agile manifesto to other parts of their business as well as bigger and bigger projects and programmes because the results of “doing agile” (I promise I’ll stop with the quotes soon!) are so attractive when it’s done well, namely:

  • Shorter delivery cycles, higher quality
  • Deep engagement between customers and development teams leading to respect, collaboration and better morale
  • Quick identification of when things are starting to go wrong

Consider the following model, not uncommon amongst large organisations:

Diagram of nominal large inter-dependant organistion structure

This represents a typical software department or vertical section of a software department with a portfolio that provides the funding for work. Big portfolio’s are normally broken down into a number of programmes which in turn may levy high level requirements onto organisations (organisational sub-divisions that own multiple products) which may affect both legacy and new product development. Often within a vertical section of a business there will be many cross-dependencies in terms of requirements, technical dependencies etc. For many large businesses this picture is overly simplistic, indeed I’ve not included things like projects, component teams and a variety of business organisation constructs like product centres, feature teams etc.  So how do you apply agile and lean philosophy to this lot and more?

You can’t simply repeat the same practices recursively throughout an organisation to deal with larger scale complexity.  Imagine a chain of scrum-of-scrums, daily stand-ups at every level (at the same time, or staggered to allow representation up the chain?), sprint plans at programme level etc. What about if the business is regulated, audited, security focussed, high risk financial, safety critical, etc.

Ok, so what’s agile at scale then?

Agility at Scale is applying the spirit of agility and lean thinking if not the letter to these bigger problems. It’s about:

  • Valuing individuals and interactions, encouraging collaboration, reducing layers of communication over processes, tools and hierarchy
  • Valuing working software in the form of quality releases from short development cycles over comprehensive documentation, business analysis, enterprise architecture documentation
  • Valuing customer, business, developer and operations (see DevOps) collaboration over contract negotiation
  • Valuing good governance, transparency and honesty in progress, plans, costs and impediments over regular reporting
  • Valuing responding to change over following a plan at all levels of the business

Agility at scale is focussed simply on reducing unnecessary bureaucracy, reducing time to market and improving value.

So how do you achieve it?

The application of:

Of course each of those (and more!) is a complex can of worms in itself. A lot of these higher scale practices are only just emerging from high maturity complex (post-)agile organisations but in time more of those things will turn into links.

A good example of  “Agile at Scale” in action is the Project Forum practice

As always this blog is  a stream of consciousness so please, let me know your opinion?

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